Kazakhstan studies Norwegian experience in recycling plastic waste
Recently, representatives of the Kazakhstan operator ROP (extended obligations of manufacturers and importers) went to Norway on a familiarization visit and the goal of adopting and implementing the Norwegian "green" technology.
In the ranking of the most environmentally efficient countries of the world, annually compiled by the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, Norway in 2018 ranked 14th (Switzerland in the first), Kazakhstan in 101st taking a position after Nigeria.
This study measures the country's achievements in terms of natural resources management, the state of the environment, combating climate change and the effectiveness of public policy in the field of ecology, in other words, a rating of what the countries themselves do and do anything for the environment.
We will not take geography and history into account; we will primarily discuss environmental protection. You can drink water from the tap, the airport smells of fresh wood, the country is surrounded by forests, it is much easier to breathe here. By the way, the Norwegians take care of their trees, logging is allowed only to private farms, but in return they are obliged to grow much more.
The country encourages the use of "green" technologies and provides various benefits for those who value and care about nature. For example, on the BUS Line, not only public transport and taxis move there, the owners of electric vehicles have the opportunity to bypass traffic jams and ride on a dedicated line.
There are huge fines for environmental pollution. Nevertheless, there are environmental problems, oil is actively extracted in Norway, it happens that it spills into water and poses a threat to environmental safety. Probably, if not for "black gold", this country could have competed for superiority in environmental ratings with Finland.
But the main thing is not fines. The population itself cares about nature. All walks of life go to take bottles.
“We have a habitual affair. Advertising is constantly going on on TV: hand over bottles. I don’t know such people who don’t do it here. People work with self-consciousness. Even ministers hand over bottles to us. We collect all this at home in the garage, save and "Then we take it out. Well, then for each bottle I get money, why should I throw them away?" - says Clara Peichel, a resident of Norway.
Tentatively, 92% of plastic and iron containers are processed in Norway. A deposit is included in the price of each bottle of soda, beer or water. The manufacturer sells the goods to you more expensively at the cost of the packaging itself. You return this money to yourself when you hand over the bottles to the scrap. The cost of one bottle is from 1 to 3 crowns (1 crown - 43 tenge).
Bottles can be handed over in special machines - fandomats, which independently determine the type of bottle, the number of containers accepted and how much you need to pay the client. Using the barcodes on the label, the machine determines whether a deposit has been made for the container. If this bottle is from outside, for example, you came with your water from Kazakhstan, the machine will accept it for processing, but will not pay you. If you purchased a product with a deposit container, then the machine will give you a check, which you can pay at the cash desk of the store.
From the counter back to the factory
TOMRA fandoms are all over Norway. There are more than 12,000 collection points in the country. In large supermarkets, they even allocated separate rooms.
For smaller stores make smaller machines. When cans and bottles fall into the fandomat, the machine first separates them: PET - separately, iron - separately, then presses.
The Norwegian company is sure: you can’t just ban plastic. We need to teach people how to recycle waste, because plastic is the most efficient material. It is very cheap, easy to recycle, and emissions and energy consumption are much lower in production than in glass processing.
The company gives simple examples: when you give one plastic bottle, you save energy to charge one cell phone, if you return two bottles, you save enough energy to listen to music on your mobile phone for 40 consecutive weeks, 285 bottles contain so much energy to start the dishwasher 170 times.
The fandomat is not a cheap device; TOMRA representatives have not yet announced the value of their cars. It is also unclear who will pay for them: the state, entrepreneurs or investors from a company that produces fandomates. By the way, the last option works in Lithuania. The company has set up its packaging machines for free, but with each bottle they receive, they get their margin. True, experts say that this is a benefit for the country only at first, as a result, owners of fandom win, income will subsequently be an order of magnitude higher than the initial investment.
Representatives of the ROP are sure that it is necessary to implement the system, and it is also necessary to change the usual way of thinking. Since January 1, 2019, Kazakhstan has prohibited the disposal of plastic, plastic, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate packaging waste at landfills; waste paper, cardboard and paper waste; mercury-containing lamps and appliances; cullet; non-ferrous and ferrous metal scrap; lithium, lead-acid batteries; electronic and electrical equipment.
In some regions there are already garbage cans for different types of waste, it remains to train the population to sort their garbage. The next step will be the delivery of bottles for re-production.